valiktor

Project Url: valiktor/valiktor
Introduction: Valiktor is a type-safe, powerful and extensible fluent DSL to validate objects in Kotlin
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Valiktor

Valiktor is a type-safe, powerful and extensible fluent DSL to validate objects in Kotlin.

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Gradle

implementation 'org.valiktor:valiktor-core:0.9.0'

Gradle (Kotlin DSL)

implementation("org.valiktor:valiktor-core:0.9.0")

Maven

<dependency>
  <groupId>org.valiktor</groupId>
  <artifactId>valiktor-core</artifactId>
  <version>0.9.0</version>
</dependency>
  • For install other modules, see Modules.

Getting Started

data class Employee(val id: Int, val name: String, val email: String) {
    init {
        validate(this) {
            validate(Employee::id).isPositive()
            validate(Employee::name).hasSize(min = 3, max = 80)
            validate(Employee::email).isNotBlank().isEmail()
        }
    }
}

How it works

The main function org.valiktor.validate expects an object and an anonymous function that will validate it. Within this, it's possible to validate the object properties by calling org.valiktor.validate with the respective property as parameter. Thanks to Kotlin's powerful reflection, it's type safe and very easy, e.g.: Employee::name. There are many validation constraints (org.valiktor.constraints.*) and extension functions (org.valiktor.functions.*) for each data type. For example, to validate that the employee's name cannot be empty: validate(Employee::name).isNotEmpty().

All the validate functions are evaluated and if any constraint is violated, a ConstraintViolationException will be thrown with a set of ConstraintViolation containing the property, the invalid value and the violated constraint.

For example, consider this data class:

data class Employee(val id: Int, val name: String)

And this invalid object:

val employee = Employee(id = 0, name = "")

Now, let's validate its id and name properties and handle the exception that will be thrown by printing the property name and the violated constraint:

try {
    validate(employee) {
        validate(Employee::id).isPositive()
        validate(Employee::name).isNotEmpty()
    }
} catch (ex: ConstraintViolationException) {
    ex.constraintViolations
        .map { "${it.property}: ${it.constraint.name}" }
        .forEach(::println)
}

This code will return:

id: Greater
name: NotEmpty

See the sample

Nested object properties

Valiktor can also validate nested objects and properties recursively.

For example, consider these data classes:

data class Employee(val company: Company)
data class Company(val city: City)
data class City(val name: String)

And this invalid object:

val employee = Employee(company = Company(city = City(name = "")))

Now, let's validate the property name of City object and handle the exception that will be thrown by printing the property name and the violated constraint:

try {
    validate(employee) {
        validate(Employee::company).validate {
            validate(Company::city).validate {
                validate(City::name).isNotEmpty()
            }
        }
    }
} catch (ex: ConstraintViolationException) {
    ex.constraintViolations
        .map { "${it.property}: ${it.constraint.name}" }
        .forEach(::println)
}

This code will return:

company.city.name: NotEmpty

See the sample

Array and collection properties

Array and collection properties can also be validated, including its elements.

For example, consider these data classes:

data class Employee(val dependents: List<Dependent>)
data class Dependent(val name: String)

And this invalid object:

val employee = Employee(
    dependents = listOf(
        Dependent(name = ""), 
        Dependent(name = ""), 
        Dependent(name = "")
    )
)

Now, let's validate the property name of all Dependent objects and handle the exception that will be thrown by printing the property name and the violated constraint:

try {
    validate(employee) {
        validate(Employee::dependents).validateForEach {
            validate(Dependent::name).isNotEmpty()
        }
    }
} catch (ex: ConstraintViolationException) {
    ex.constraintViolations
        .map { "${it.property}: ${it.constraint.name}" }
        .forEach(::println)
}

This code will return:

dependents[0].name: NotEmpty
dependents[1].name: NotEmpty
dependents[2].name: NotEmpty

See the sample

Internationalization

Valiktor supports decoupled internationalization, this allows to maintain the validation logic in the core of the application and the internationalization in another layer, such as presentation or RESTful adapter. This guarantees some design principles proposed by Domain-Driven Design or Clean Architecture, for example.

The internationalization works by converting a collection of ConstraintViolation into a collection of ConstraintViolationMessage through the extension function org.valiktor.i18n.mapToMessage by passing the following parameters:

  • baseName: specifies the prefix name of the message properties, the default value is org/valiktor/messages.
  • locale: specifies the java.util.Locale of the message properties, the default value is the default locale of the application.

For example:

try {
    validate(employee) {
        validate(Employee::id).isPositive()
        validate(Employee::name).isNotEmpty()
    }
} catch (ex: ConstraintViolationException) {
    ex.constraintViolations
        .mapToMessage(baseName = "messages", locale = Locale.ENGLISH)
        .map { "${it.property}: ${it.message}" }
        .forEach(::println)
}

This code will return:

id: Must be greater than 1
name: Must not be empty

Supported locales

Currently the following locales are natively supported by Valiktor:

  • ca (Catalan)
  • de (German)
  • en (English)
  • es (Spanish)
  • pt_BR (Portuguese/Brazil)

Customizing a message

Any constraint message of any language can be overwritten simply by adding the message key into your message bundle file. Generally the constraint key is the qualified class name plus message suffix, e.g.: org.valiktor.constraints.NotEmpty.message.

Message formatters

Some constraints have parameters of many types and these parameters need to be interpolated with the message. The default behavior of Valiktor is to call the object toString() function, but some data types require specific formatting, such as date/time and monetary values. So for these cases, there are custom formatters (org.valiktor.i18n.formatters.*).

For example:

try {
    validate(employee) {
        validate(Employee::dateOfBirth).isGreaterThan(LocalDate.of(1950, 12, 31))
    }
} catch (ex: ConstraintViolationException) {
    ex.constraintViolations
        .mapToMessage(baseName = "messages")
        .map { "${it.property}: ${it.message}" }
        .forEach(::println)
}

With en as the default locale, this code will return:

dateOfBirth: Must be greater than Dec 31, 1950

With pt_BR as the default locale, this code will return:

dateOfBirth: Deve ser maior que 31/12/1950

Currently the following types have a custom formatter supported by Valiktor:

Type Formatter
kotlin.Any org.valiktor.i18n.formatters.AnyFormatter
kotlin.Array org.valiktor.i18n.formatters.ArrayFormatter
kotlin.Number org.valiktor.i18n.formatters.NumberFormatter
kotlin.collections.Iterable org.valiktor.i18n.formatters.IterableFormatter
java.util.Calendar org.valiktor.i18n.formatters.CalendarFormatter
java.util.Date org.valiktor.i18n.formatters.DateFormatter
java.time.LocalDate org.valiktor.i18n.formatters.LocalDateFormatter
java.time.LocalTime org.valiktor.i18n.formatters.LocalTimeFormatter
java.time.LocalDateTime org.valiktor.i18n.formatters.LocalDateTimeFormatter
java.time.OffsetTime org.valiktor.i18n.formatters.OffsetTimeFormatter
java.time.OffsetDateTime org.valiktor.i18n.formatters.OffsetDateTimeFormatter
java.time.ZonedDateTime org.valiktor.i18n.formatters.ZonedDateTimeFormatter
javax.money.MonetaryAmount org.valiktor.i18n.formatters.MonetaryAmountFormatter
org.joda.time.DateTime org.valiktor.i18n.formatters.DateTimeFormatter
org.joda.time.LocalDate org.valiktor.i18n.formatters.LocalDateFormatter
org.joda.time.LocalTime org.valiktor.i18n.formatters.LocalTimeFormatter
org.joda.time.LocalDateTime org.valiktor.i18n.formatters.LocalDateTimeFormatter
org.joda.money.Money org.valiktor.i18n.formatters.MoneyFormatter
org.joda.money.BigMoney org.valiktor.i18n.formatters.BigMoneyFormatter

Creating a custom formatter

Creating a custom formatter is very simple, just implement the interface org.valiktor.i18n.Formatter, like this:

object CustomFormatter : Formatter<Custom> {
    override fun format(value: Custom, messageBundle: MessageBundle) = value.toString()
}

Then add it to the list of formatters (org.valiktor.i18n.Formatters):

Formatters[Custom::class] = CustomFormatter

It's also possible to use the SPI (Service Provider Interface) provided by Valiktor using the java.util.ServiceLoader to discover the formatters automatically without adding them to the list programmatically. For this approach, it's necessary to implement the interface org.valiktor.i18n.FormatterSpi, like this:

class CustomFormatterSpi : FormatterSpi {

    override val formatters = setOf(
        Custom::class to CustomFormatter
    )
}

Then create a file org.valiktor.i18n.FormatterSpi within the directory META-INF.services with the content:

com.company.CustomFormatterSpi

See the sample

Creating a custom validation

Valiktor provides a lot of constraints and validation functions for the most common types, but in some cases this is not enough to meet all needs.

It's possible to create custom validations in three steps:

1. Define the constraint

To create a custom constraint, it's necessary to implement the interface org.valiktor.Constraint, which has these properties:

  • name: specifies the name of the constraint, the default value is the class name, e.g.: Between.
  • messageBundle: specifies the base name of the default message property file, the default value is org/valiktor/messages.
  • messageKey: specifies the name of the key in the message property file, the default value is the qualified class name plus message suffix, e.g.: org.valiktor.constraints.Between.message.
  • messageParams: specifies a Map<String, *> containing the parameters to be replaced in the message, the default values are all class properties, obtained through reflection.

For example:

data class Between<T>(val start: T, val end: T) : Constraint

2. Create the extension function

The validation logic must be within an extension function of org.valiktor.Validator<E>.Property<T>, where E represents the object and T represents the property to be validated.

There is an auxiliary function named validate that expects a Constraint and a validation function as parameters.

For example:

fun <E> Validator<E>.Property<Int?>.isBetween(start: Int, end: Int) = 
    this.validate(Between(start, end)) { it == null || it in start.rangeTo(end) }

And to use it:

validate(employee) {
    validate(Employee::age).isBetween(start = 1, end = 99)
}

Note: null properties are valid (it == null || ...), this is the default behavior for all Valiktor functions. If the property is nullable and cannot be null, the function isNotNull() should be used.

3. Add the internationalization messages

Add internationalization support for the custom constraint is very simple. Just add a message to each message bundle file.

For example:

  • en (e.g.: messages_en.properties):
org.valiktor.constraints.Between.message=Must be between {start} and {end}
  • pt_BR (e.g.: messages_pt_BR.properties):
org.valiktor.constraints.Between.message=Deve estar entre {start} e {end}

Note: the variables start and end are extracted through the property messageParams of the constraint Between and will be formatted in the message using the Message formatters. If you need a custom formatter, see Creating a custom formatter.

See the sample

Validating RESTful APIs

Implementing validation on REST APIs is not always so easy, so developers end up not doing it right. But the fact is that validations are extremely important to maintaining the integrity and consistency of the API, as well as maintaining the responses clear by helping the client identifying and fixing the issues.

Spring support

Valiktor provides integration with Spring WebMvc and Spring WebFlux (reactive approach) to make validating easier. The module valiktor-spring has four exception handlers:

Spring WebMvc:

  • ConstraintViolationExceptionHandler: handles ConstraintViolationException from valiktor-core.
  • InvalidFormatExceptionHandler: handles InvalidFormatException from jackson-databind.
  • MissingKotlinParameterExceptionHandler: handles MissingKotlinParameterException from jackson-module-kotlin.

Spring WebFlux:

  • ReactiveConstraintViolationExceptionHandler: handles ConstraintViolationException from valiktor-core.
  • ReactiveInvalidFormatExceptionHandler: handles InvalidFormatException from jackson-databind.
  • ReactiveMissingKotlinParameterExceptionHandler: handles MissingKotlinParameterException from jackson-module-kotlin.

All the exception handlers return the status code 422 (Unprocessable Entity) with the violated constraints in the following payload format:

{
  "errors": [
    {
      "property": "the invalid property name",
      "value": "the invalid value",
      "message": "the internationalization message",
      "constraint": {
        "name": "the constraint name",
        "params": [
          {
            "name": "the param name",
            "value": "the param value"
          }
        ]
      }
    }
  ]
}

Valiktor also use the Spring Locale Resolver to determine the locale that will be used to translate the internationalization messages.

By default, Spring resolves the locale by getting the HTTP header Accept-Language, e.g.: Accept-Language: en.

Spring WebMvc example

Consider this controller:

@RestController
@RequestMapping("/employees")
class EmployeeController {

    @PostMapping(consumes = [MediaType.APPLICATION_JSON_VALUE])
    fun create(@RequestBody employee: Employee): ResponseEntity<Void> {
        validate(employee) {
            validate(Employee::id).isPositive()
            validate(Employee::name).isNotEmpty()
        }
        return ResponseEntity.created(...).build()
    }
}

Now, let's make two invalid requests with cURL:

  • with Accept-Language: en:
curl --header "Accept-Language: en" \
  --header "Content-Type: application/json" \
  --request POST \ 
  --data '{"id":0,"name":""}' \
  http://localhost:8080/employees

Response:

{
  "errors": [
    {
      "property": "id",
      "value": 0,
      "message": "Must be greater than 0",
      "constraint": {
        "name": "Greater",
        "params": [
          {
            "name": "value",
            "value": 0
          }
        ]
      }
    },
    {
      "property": "name",
      "value": "",
      "message": "Must not be empty",
      "constraint": {
        "name": "NotEmpty",
        "params": []
      }
    }
  ]
}
  • with Accept-Language: pt-BR:
curl --header "Accept-Language: pt-BR" \
  --header "Content-Type: application/json" \  
  --request POST \ 
  --data '{"id":0,"name":""}' \
  http://localhost:8080/employees

Response:

{
  "errors": [
    {
      "property": "id",
      "value": 0,
      "message": "Deve ser maior que 0",
      "constraint": {
        "name": "Greater",
        "params": [
          {
            "name": "value",
            "value": 0
          }
        ]
      }
    },
    {
      "property": "name",
      "value": "",
      "message": "Não deve ser vazio",
      "constraint": {
        "name": "NotEmpty",
        "params": []
      }
    }
  ]
}

Samples:

Spring WebFlux example

Consider this router using Kotlin DSL:

@Bean
fun router() = router {
    accept(MediaType.APPLICATION_JSON).nest {
        "/employees".nest {
            POST("/") { req ->
                req.bodyToMono(Employee::class.java)
                    .map {
                        validate(it) {
                            validate(Employee::id).isPositive()
                            validate(Employee::name).isNotEmpty()
                        }
                    }
                    .flatMap {
                        ServerResponse.created(...).build()
                    }
            }
        }
    }
}

Now, let's make two invalid requests with cURL:

  • with Accept-Language: en:
curl --header "Accept-Language: en" \
  --header "Content-Type: application/json" \
  --request POST \ 
  --data '{"id":0,"name":""}' \
  http://localhost:8080/employees

Response:

{
  "errors": [
    {
      "property": "id",
      "value": 0,
      "message": "Must be greater than 0",
      "constraint": {
        "name": "Greater",
        "params": [
          {
            "name": "value",
            "value": 0
          }
        ]
      }
    },
    {
      "property": "name",
      "value": "",
      "message": "Must not be empty",
      "constraint": {
        "name": "NotEmpty",
        "params": []
      }
    }
  ]
}
  • with Accept-Language: pt-BR:
curl --header "Accept-Language: pt-BR" \
  --header "Content-Type: application/json" \  
  --request POST \ 
  --data '{"id":0,"name":""}' \
  http://localhost:8080/employees

Response:

{
  "errors": [
    {
      "property": "id",
      "value": 0,
      "message": "Deve ser maior que 0",
      "constraint": {
        "name": "Greater",
        "params": [
          {
            "name": "value",
            "value": 0
          }
        ]
      }
    },
    {
      "property": "name",
      "value": "",
      "message": "Não deve ser vazio",
      "constraint": {
        "name": "NotEmpty",
        "params": []
      }
    }
  ]
}

Samples:

Spring Boot support

For Spring Boot applications, the module valiktor-spring-boot-starter provides auto-configuration support for the exception handlers and property support for configuration.

Currently the following properties can be configured:

Property Description
valiktor.baseBundleName The base bundle name containing the custom messages

Example with YAML format:

valiktor:
  base-bundle-name: messages

Example with Properties format:

valiktor.baseBundleName=messages

Test Assertions

Valiktor provides a module to build fluent assertions for validation tests, for example:

shouldFailValidation<Employee> {
    // some code here
}

The function shouldFailValidation asserts that a block fails with ConstraintViolationException being thrown.

It's possible to verify the constraint violations using a fluent DSL:

shouldFailValidation<Employee> {
    // some code here
}.verify {
    expect(Employee::name, " ", NotBlank)
    expect(Employee::email, "john", Email)
    expect(Employee::company) {
        expect(Company::name, "co", Size(min = 3, max = 50))
    }
}

Collections and arrays are also supported:

shouldFailValidation<Employee> {
    // some code here
}.verify {
    expectAll(Employee::dependents) {
        expectElement {
            expect(Dependent::name, " ", NotBlank)
            expect(Dependent::age, 0, Between(1, 16))
        }
        expectElement {
            expect(Dependent::name, " ", NotBlank)
            expect(Dependent::age, 17, Between(1, 16))
        }
        expectElement {
            expect(Dependent::name, " ", NotBlank)
            expect(Dependent::age, 18, Between(1, 16))
        }
    }
}

Modules

There are a number of modules in Valiktor, here is a quick overview:

valiktor-core

jar javadoc sources

The main library providing the validation engine, including:

  • 40+ validation constraints
  • 200+ validation functions for all standard Kotlin/Java types
  • Internationalization support
  • Default formatters for array, collection, date and number types

valiktor-javamoney

jar javadoc sources

This module provides support for JavaMoney API types, including:

  • Validation constraints and functions for MonetaryAmount
  • Default formatter for MonetaryAmount

valiktor-javatime

jar javadoc sources

This module provides support for JavaTime API types, including:

  • Validation constraints and functions for LocalDate, LocalDateTime, OffsetDateTime and ZonedDateTime
  • Default formatter for all LocalDate, LocalDateTime, LocalTime, OffsetDateTime, OffsetTime and ZonedDateTime

valiktor-jodamoney

jar javadoc sources

This module provides support for Joda-Money API types, including:

  • Validation constraints and functions for Money and BigMoney
  • Default formatter for Money and BigMoney

valiktor-jodatime

jar javadoc sources

This module provides support for Joda-Time API types, including:

  • Validation constraints and functions for LocalDate, LocalDateTime and DateTime
  • Default formatter for all LocalDate, LocalDateTime, LocalTime and DateTime

valiktor-spring

jar javadoc sources

Spring WebMvc and WebFlux integration, including:

  • Configuration class to set a custom base bundle name
  • Exception handler for ConstraintViolationException from Valiktor
  • Exception handlers for InvalidFormatException and MissingKotlinParameterException from Jackson

valiktor-spring-boot-autoconfigure

jar javadoc sources

Provides auto-configuration support for valiktor-spring, including:

  • Configuration class based on properties
  • Spring WebMvc exception handlers
  • Spring WebFlux exception handlers

valiktor-spring-boot-starter

jar javadoc sources

Spring Boot Starter library including the modules valiktor-spring and valiktor-spring-boot-autoconfigure

valiktor-test

jar javadoc sources

This module provides fluent assertions for validation tests

Samples

Changelog

For latest updates see CHANGELOG.md file.

Contributing

Please read CONTRIBUTING.md for more details, and the process for submitting pull requests to us.

License

This project is licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 - see the LICENSE file for details.

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