TrustKit-Android

Introduction: Easy SSL pinning validation and reporting for Android.
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TrustKit Android is an open source library that makes it easy to deploy SSL public key pinning and reporting in any Android App.

If you need SSL pinning/reporting in your iOS App. we have also released TrustKit for iOS and macOS at https://github.com/datatheorem/TrustKit.

Overview

TrustKit Android works by extending the Android N Network Security Configuration in two ways:

  • It provides support for the <pin-set> (for SSL pinning) and <debug-overrides> functionality of the Network Security Configuration to earlier versions of Android, down to API level 17. This allows Apps that support versions of Android earlier than N to implement SSL pinning in a way that is future-proof.
  • It adds the ability to send reports when pinning validation failed for a specific connection. Reports have a format that is similar to the report-uri feature of HTTP Public Key Pinning and TrustKit iOS.

For better compatibility, TrustKit will also run on API levels 15 and 16 but its functionality will be disabled.

Getting Started

Sample Usage

Adding TrustKit as a Dependency

Add TrustKit to your project's build.gradle:

compile 'com.datatheorem.android.trustkit:trustkit:<last_version>'

Configuring a Pinning Policy

Deploying SSL pinning in the App requires initializing TrustKit with a pinning policy (domains, pins, and additional settings). The policy is wrapped in the official Android N Network Security Configuration i.e :

<!-- res/xml/network_security_config.xml -->
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<network-security-config>
  <!-- Pin the domain www.datatheorem.com -->
  <!-- Official Android N API -->
  <domain-config>
    <domain>www.datatheorem.com</domain>
    <pin-set>
      <pin digest="SHA-256">k3XnEYQCK79AtL9GYnT/nyhsabas03V+bhRQYHQbpXU=</pin>
      <pin digest="SHA-256">2kOi4HdYYsvTR1sTIR7RHwlf2SescTrpza9ZrWy7poQ=</pin>
    </pin-set>
    <!-- TrustKit Android API -->
    <!-- Do not enforce pinning validation -->
    <trustkit-config enforcePinning="false">
      <!-- Add a reporting URL for pin validation reports -->
      <report-uri>http://report.datatheorem.com/log_report</report-uri>
    </trustkit-config>
  </domain-config>
  <debug-overrides>
    <trust-anchors>
      <!-- For debugging purposes, add a debug CA and override pins -->
      <certificates overridePins="true" src="@raw/debugca" />
    </trust-anchors>
  </debug-overrides>
</network-security-config>

Initializing TrustKit with the Pinning Policy

The path to the XML policy should then be specified in the App's manifest in order to enable it as the App's Network Security Configuration on Android N:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<manifest ... >
    <application android:networkSecurityConfig="@xml/network_security_config"
                    ... >
        ...
    </application>
</manifest>

Then, TrustKit should be initialized with the same path:

@Override
protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
  super.OnCreate(savedInstanceState);

  // Using the default path - res/xml/network_security_config.xml
  TrustKit.initializeWithNetworkSecurityConfiguration(this);

  // OR using a custom resource (TrustKit can't be initialized twice)
  TrustKit.initializeWithNetworkSecurityConfiguration(this, R.xml.my_custom_network_security_config);

  URL url = new URL("https://www.datatheorem.com");
  String serverHostname = url.getHost();

  // HttpsUrlConnection
  HttpsURLConnection connection = (HttpsURLConnection) url.openConnection();
  connection.setSSLSocketFactory(TrustKit.getInstance().getSSLSocketFactory(serverHostname));

  // OkHttp 2.x
  OkHttpClient client =
    new OkHttpClient()
        .setSSLSocketFactory(TrustKit.getInstance().getSSLSocketFactory(serverHostname));

  // OkHttp 3.0.x, 3.1.x and 3.2.x
  OkHttpClient client =
    new OkHttpClient.Builder()
        .sslSocketFactory(TrustKit.getInstance().getSSLSocketFactory(serverHostname))

  // OkHttp 3.3.x and higher
  OkHttpClient client =
    new OkHttpClient().newBuilder()
        .sslSocketFactory(TrustKit.getInstance().getSSLSocketFactory(serverHostname),
                      TrustKit.getInstance().getTrustManager(serverHostname))
    .build();
}

Once TrustKit has been initialized and the client or connection's SSLSocketFactory has been set, it will verify the server's certificate chain against the configured pinning policy whenever an HTTPS connection is initiated. If a report URI has been configured, the App will also send reports to the specified URI whenever a pin validation failure occurred.

Limitations

On Android N devices, TrustKit uses the OS's implementation of pinning, and it is not affected by the following limitations.

On Android M and earlier devices, TrustKit provides uses its own implementation of pinning that is mostly-compatible with Android N's pinning behavior. However, in order to keep the code base as simple as possible, it has the following limitations:

  • The pinning policy will only be applied to connections that were configured to use a TrustKit-provided SSLSocketFactory or X509TrustManager.
  • The SSLSocketFactory or X509TrustManager provided by TrustKit can only be used for connections to the domain that was passed to the getTrustManager() and getSSLSocketFactory() methods. Hence, if a redirection to a different domain occurs, the new domain will fail SSL validation and the connection will fail. In practice, this should not be a problem because pinning validation is only meant to be used on the few specific domains on which the App's main server API is hosted --- redirections should not happen in this scenario.
  • The <trust-anchors> setting is only applied when used within the global <debug-overrides> tag. Hence, custom trust anchors for specific domains cannot be set.
  • Within the <trust-anchors> tag, only <certificate> tags pointing to a raw certificate file are supported (the user or system values for the src attribute will be ignored).

License

TrustKit Android is released under the MIT license. See LICENSE for details.

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