detekt

项目地址:arturbosch/detekt
简介:Static code analysis for Kotlin
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Meet detekt, a static code analysis tool for the Kotlin programming language. It operates on the abstract syntax tree provided by the Kotlin compiler.

detekt in action

Features

  • code smell analysis for your kotlin projects
  • complexity report based on logical lines of code, McCabe complexity and amount of code smells
  • highly configurable (rule set or rule level)
  • suppress findings with Kotlin's @Suppress and Java's @SuppressWarnings annotations
  • specify code smell thresholds to break your build or print a warning
  • code Smell baseline and ignore lists for legacy projects
  • gradle plugin for code analysis, formatting and import migration
  • gradle tasks to use local intellij distribution for formatting and inspecting kotlin code
  • optionally configure detekt for each sub module by using profiles (gradle-plugin)
  • sonarqube integration
  • NEW extensible by own rule sets and FileProcessListener's

Table of contents

  1. Commandline interface
  2. Gradle plugin
    1. in groovy dsl
    2. in kotlin dsl
    3. in android projects
    4. plugin tasks
    5. detekt-closure
  3. Standalone gradle task
  4. Standalone maven task
  5. Rule sets
  6. Rule set configuration
  7. Suppress rules
  8. Build failure
  9. Extending detekt
    1. RuleSets
    2. Processors
    3. Reports
    4. Rule testing
  10. Black- and Whitelist code smells
  11. Contributors

Build & use the commandline interface

  • git clone https://github.com/arturbosch/detekt
  • cd detekt
  • ./gradlew build shadow
  • java -jar detekt-cli/build/libs/detekt-cli-[version]-all.jar [parameters]*
Parameters for CLI

The following parameters are shown when --help is entered. The --input/-i option is required:

Usage: detekt [options]
  Options:
    --baseline, -b
      If a baseline xml file is passed in, only new code smells not in the 
      baseline are printed in the console.
    --config, -c
      Path to the config file (path/to/config.yml).
    --config-resource, -cr
      Path to the config resource on detekt's classpath (path/to/config.yml).
    --create-baseline, -cb
      Treats current analysis findings as a smell baseline for future detekt
      runs. 
      Default: false
    --debug
      Debugs given ktFile by printing its elements.
      Default: false
    --disable-default-rulesets, -dd
      Disables default rule sets.
      Default: false
    --filters, -f
      Path filters defined through regex with separator ';' (".*test.*").
    --generate-config, -gc
      Export default config to default-detekt-config.yml.
      Default: false
    --help, -h
      Shows the usage.
  * --input, -i
      Input path to analyze (path/to/project).
    --output, -o
      Directory where output reports are stored.
    --output-name, -on
      The base name for output reports is derived from this parameter.
    --parallel
      Enables parallel compilation of source files. Should only be used if the 
      analyzing project has more than ~200 kotlin files.
      Default: false
    --plugins, -p
      Extra paths to plugin jars separated by ',' or ';'.

--input can either be a directory or a single Kotlin file. The currently only supported configuration format is yaml. --config should point to one. Generating a default configuration file is as easy as using the --generate-config parameter. filters can be used for example to exclude all test directories. With rules you can point to additional ruleset.jar's creating by yourself or others. More on this topic see section Custom RuleSets.

Using the detekt-gradle-plugin

Use the groovy or kotlin dsl of gradle and configure the detekt closure as described here.

Configuration when using groovy dsl

For gradle version >= 2.1

buildscript {
    repositories {
        jcenter()
    }
}

plugins {
    id "io.gitlab.arturbosch.detekt" version "1.0.0.[version]"
}

detekt {
    version = "1.0.0.[version]"
    profile("main") {
        input = "$projectDir/src/main/kotlin"
        config = "$projectDir/detekt.yml"
        filters = ".*test.*,.*/resources/.*,.*/tmp/.*"
    }
}

For all gradle versions:

buildscript {
  repositories {
    jcenter()
    maven { url "https://plugins.gradle.org/m2/" }
  }
  dependencies {
    classpath "gradle.plugin.io.gitlab.arturbosch.detekt:detekt-gradle-plugin:1.0.0.[version]"
  }
}

apply plugin: "io.gitlab.arturbosch.detekt"

detekt {
    version = "1.0.0.[version]"
    profile("main") {
        input = "$projectDir/src/main/kotlin"
        config = "$projectDir/detekt.yml"
        filters = ".*test.*,.*/resources/.*,.*/tmp/.*"
    }
}
Configuration when using kotlin dsl

For gradle version >= 3.5

import io.gitlab.arturbosch.detekt.DetektExtension

buildscript {
    repositories {
        jcenter()
    }
}
plugins {
    id("io.gitlab.arturbosch.detekt").version("1.0.0.[version]")
}

configure<DetektExtension> {
    version = "1.0.0.[version]"
    profile("main") {
        input = "$projectDir/src/main/kotlin"
        config = "$projectDir/detekt.yml"
        filters = ".*test.*,.*/resources/.*,.*/tmp/.*"
    }
}
Configuration for Android projects

When using Android make sure to have detekt configured in the project level build.gradle file. The new preferred plugin configuration way is used, the old way is commented out.

buildscript {
    repositories {
//        maven { url "https://plugins.gradle.org/m2/" }
        jcenter()
    }
    dependencies {
        classpath 'com.android.tools.build:gradle:2.3.3'
//        classpath "gradle.plugin.io.gitlab.arturbosch.detekt:detekt-gradle-plugin:1.0.0.[version]"
    }

}
plugins {
    id "io.gitlab.arturbosch.detekt" version "1.0.0.[version]"
}

//apply plugin: 'io.gitlab.arturbosch.detekt'

allprojects {
    repositories {
        jcenter()
    }
}

task clean(type: Delete) {
    delete rootProject.buildDir
}

detekt {
    version = "1.0.0.[version]"
    profile("main") {
        input = "$projectDir/your/app"
        config = "$projectDir/detekt.yml"
        filters = ".*test.*,.*/resources/.*,.*/tmp/.*"
    }
}

Available plugin tasks

  • detektCheck - Runs a detekt analysis and complexity report. Configure the analysis inside the detekt-closure. By default the standard rule set is used without output report or black- and whitelist checks.
  • detektGenerateConfig - Generates a default detekt config file into your projects location.
  • detektBaseline - Like detektCheck, but creates a code smell baseline. Further detekt runs will only feature new smells not in this list.
  • detektMigrate - Experimental feature for now. Just supports migration of specified imports. See migration section.
  • detektIdeaFormat - Uses a local idea installation to format your kotlin (and other) code according to the specified code-style.xml.
  • detektIdeaInspect Uses a local idea installation to run inspections on your kotlin (and other) code according to the specified inspections.xml profile.
Options for detekt configuration closure
detekt {
    version = "1.0.0.[version]"  // When unspecified the latest detekt version found, will be used. Override to stay on the same version.

     // A profile basically abstracts over the argument vector passed to detekt. 
     // Different profiles can be specified and used for different sub modules or testing code.
    profile("main") {
        input = "$projectDir/src/main/kotlin" // Which part of your project should be analyzed?
        config = "$projectDir/detekt.yml" // Use $project.projectDir or to navigate inside your project 
        configResource = "/detekt.yml" // Use this parameter instead of config if your detekt yaml file is inside your resources. Is needed for multi project maven tasks.
        filters = ".*test.*, .*/resources/.*" // What paths to exclude? Use comma oder semicolon to separate
        ruleSets = "other/optional/ruleset.jar" // Custom rule sets can be linked to this, use comma oder semicolon to separate, remove if unused.
        disableDefaultRuleSets = false // Disables the default rule set. Just use detekt as the detection engine with your custom rule sets.
        output = "$project.projectDir/reports/detekt.xml" // If present, prints all findings into that file.
        outputName = "my-module" // This parameter is used to derive the output report name
        baseline = "$project.projectDir/reports/baseline.xml" // If present all current findings are saved in a baseline.xml to only consider new code smells for further runs.
        parallel = true // Use this flag if your project has more than 200 files. 
   }

   // Definines a secondary profile `gradle detektCheck -Ddetekt.profile=override` will use this profile. 
   // The main profile gets always loaded but specified profiles override main profiles parameters.
   profile("override") {
       config = "$projectDir/detekt-test-config.yml"
   }
}
Configure a local idea for detekt
  • download the community edition of intellij
  • extract the file to your preferred location eg. ~/.idea
  • let detekt know about idea inside the detekt-closure
  • extract code-style.xml and inpect.xml from idea settings (Settings>CodeStyle>Scheme and Settings>Inspections>Profile)
  • run detektIdeaFormat or detektIdeaInspect
  • all parameters in the following detekt-closure are mandatory for both tasks
  • make sure that current or default profile have an input path specified!
String USER_HOME = System.getProperty("user.home")

detekt {  
    profile("main") {
        input = "$projectDir/src/main/kotlin"
        output = "$projectDir/reports/report.xml"
        outputFormat = "xml"
    }
    idea {
        path = "$USER_HOME/.idea"
        codeStyleScheme = "$USER_HOME/.idea/idea-code-style.xml"
        inspectionsProfile = "$USER_HOME/.idea/inspect.xml"
        report = "project.projectDir/reports"
        mask = "*.kt,"
    }
}

For more information on using idea as a headless formatting/inspection tool see here.

Migration

Migration rules can be configured in your detekt.yml file. For now only migration of imports is supported.

# *experimental feature*
# Migration rules can be defined in the same config file or a new one
migration:
  active: true
  imports:
    # your.package.Class: new.package.or.Class
    # for example:
    # io.gitlab.arturbosch.detekt.api.Rule: io.gitlab.arturbosch.detekt.rule.Rule

Using detekt in custom gradle projects

  1. Add following lines to your build.gradle file.
  2. Run gradle detekt
  3. Add check.dependsOn detekt if you want to run detekt on every build
repositories {
    jcenter()
}

configurations {
    detekt
}

task detekt(type: JavaExec) {
    main = "io.gitlab.arturbosch.detekt.cli.Main"
    classpath = configurations.detekt
    def input = "$projectDir"
    def config = "$projectDir/detekt.yml"
    def filters = ".*test.*"
    def rulesets = ""
    def params = [ '-i', input, '-c', config, '-f', filters, '-r', rulesets]
    args(params)
}

dependencies {
    detekt 'io.gitlab.arturbosch.detekt:detekt-cli:1.0.0.[version]'
}

Attention Android Developers! the dependencies section must be at the bottom, after the repository, configurations and task sections!

Using detekt in Maven Projects

  1. Add following lines to your pom.xml.
  2. Run mvn verify (when using the verify phase as I did here)
<build>
    <plugins>
        <plugin>
            <groupId>org.apache.maven.plugins</groupId>
            <artifactId>maven-antrun-plugin</artifactId>
            <version>1.8</version>
            <executions>
                <execution>
                    <!-- This can be run separately with mvn antrun:run@detekt -->
                    <id>detekt</id>
                    <phase>verify</phase>
                    <configuration>
                        <target name="detekt">
                            <java taskname="detekt" dir="${basedir}" fork="true" failonerror="true"
                                  classname="io.gitlab.arturbosch.detekt.cli.Main" classpathref="maven.plugin.classpath">
                                <arg value="-i"/>
                                <arg value="${basedir}/src"/>
                                <arg value="-f"/>
                                <arg value=".*test.*"/>
                                <arg value="--useTabs"/>
                            </java>
                        </target>
                    </configuration>
                    <goals><goal>run</goal></goals>
                </execution>
            </executions>
            <dependencies>
                <dependency>
                    <groupId>io.gitlab.arturbosch.detekt</groupId>
                    <artifactId>detekt-cli</artifactId>
                    <version>1.0.0.[CURRENT_MILESTONE]</version>
                </dependency>
            </dependencies>
        </plugin>
    </plugins>
</build>

<pluginRepositories>
  <pluginRepository>
    <id>arturbosch-code-analysis</id>
    <name>arturbosch-code-analysis (for detekt)</name>
    <url>https://dl.bintray.com/arturbosch/code-analysis/</url>
    <layout>default</layout>
    <releases>
      <enabled>true</enabled>
      <updatePolicy>never</updatePolicy>
    </releases>
    <snapshots>
      <enabled>false</enabled>
      <updatePolicy>never</updatePolicy>
    </snapshots>
  </pluginRepository>
</pluginRepositories>

RuleSets

Currently there are seven rule sets which are used per default when running the cli.

  • complexity - has rules to detect LongMethod, LongParameterList, LargeClass, ComplexMethod ... smells
  • code-smell - other rules which can be classified as code smells but do not fit into the complexity category
  • style - detects wildcard imports and naming violations
  • comments - has rules to detect missing KDoc over public members and unnecessary KDoc over private members
  • exceptions - too general exceptions are used in throw and catch statements like RuntimeException, Error or Throwable
  • empty - finds empty block statements
  • potential-bugs - code is structured in a way it can lead to bugs like 'only equals but not hashcode is implemented' or explicit garbage collection calls
  • performance - finds potential performance issues

RuleSet Configuration

To turn off specific rules/rule sets or change threshold values for certain rules a yaml configuration file can be used. There are two approaches to configuring your rulesets.

Copy defaults and modify

Export the default config with the --generate-config flag or copy and modify the detekt-cli/src/main/resources/default-detekt-config.yml for your needs.

potential-bugs:
  active: true
  DuplicateCaseInWhenExpression:
    active: true
  EqualsAlwaysReturnsTrueOrFalse:
    active: false
  EqualsWithHashCodeExist:
    active: true
  WrongEqualsTypeParameter:
    active: false
  ExplicitGarbageCollectionCall:
    active: true
  UnreachableCode:
    active: true
  LateinitUsage:
    active: false
  UnsafeCallOnNullableType:
    active: false
  UnsafeCast:
    active: false
  UselessPostfixExpression:
    active: false

performance:
  active: true
  ForEachOnRange:
    active: true
  SpreadOperator:
    active: true
  UnnecessaryTemporaryInstantiation:
    active: true

exceptions:
  active: true
  ExceptionRaisedInUnexpectedLocation:
    active: false
    methodNames: 'toString,hashCode,equals,finalize'
  SwallowedException:
    active: false
  TooGenericExceptionCaught:
    active: true
    exceptions:
      - ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
      - Error
      - Exception
      - IllegalMonitorStateException
      - IndexOutOfBoundsException
      - InterruptedException
      - NullPointerException
      - RuntimeException
  TooGenericExceptionThrown:
    active: true
    exceptions:
      - Throwable
      - ThrowError
      - ThrowException
      - ThrowNullPointerException
      - ThrowRuntimeException
      - ThrowThrowable
  InstanceOfCheckForException:
    active: false
  IteratorNotThrowingNoSuchElementException:
    active: false
  PrintExceptionStackTrace:
    active: false
  RethrowCaughtException:
    active: false
  ReturnFromFinally:
    active: false
  ThrowingExceptionFromFinally:
    active: false
  ThrowingExceptionInMain:
    active: false
  ThrowingNewInstanceOfSameException:
    active: false

empty-blocks:
  active: true
  EmptyCatchBlock:
    active: true
  EmptyClassBlock:
    active: true
  EmptyDefaultConstructor:
    active: true
  EmptyDoWhileBlock:
    active: true
  EmptyElseBlock:
    active: true
  EmptyFinallyBlock:
    active: true
  EmptyForBlock:
    active: true
  EmptyFunctionBlock:
    active: true
  EmptyIfBlock:
    active: true
  EmptyInitBlock:
    active: true
  EmptySecondaryConstructor:
    active: true
  EmptyWhenBlock:
    active: true
  EmptyWhileBlock:
    active: true

complexity:
  active: true
  LongMethod:
    threshold: 20
  LongParameterList:
    threshold: 5
  LargeClass:
    threshold: 150
  ComplexMethod:
    threshold: 10
  TooManyFunctions:
    threshold: 10
  ComplexCondition:
    threshold: 3
  LabeledExpression:
    active: false
  StringLiteralDuplication:
    active: false
    threshold: 2
    ignoreAnnotation: true
    excludeStringsWithLessThan5Characters: true
    ignoreStringsRegex: '$^'

style:
  active: true
  ReturnCount:
    active: true
    max: 2
  NewLineAtEndOfFile:
    active: true
  OptionalAbstractKeyword:
    active: true
  OptionalWhenBraces:
    active: false
  EqualsNullCall:
    active: false
  ForbiddenComment:
    active: true
    values: 'TODO:,FIXME:,STOPSHIP:'
  ForbiddenImport:
    active: false
    imports: ''
  PackageDeclarationStyle:
    active: false
  ModifierOrder:
    active: true
  MagicNumber:
    active: true
    ignoreNumbers: '-1,0,1,2'
    ignoreHashCodeFunction: false
    ignorePropertyDeclaration: false
    ignoreAnnotation: false
    ignoreNamedArgument: true
  WildcardImport:
    active: true
  SafeCast:
    active: true
  MaxLineLength:
    active: true
    maxLineLength: 120
    excludePackageStatements: false
    excludeImportStatements: false
  PackageNaming:
    active: true
    packagePattern: '^[a-z]+(\.[a-z][a-z0-9]*)*$'
  ClassNaming:
    active: true
    classPattern: '[A-Z$][a-zA-Z$]*'
  EnumNaming:
    active: true
    enumEntryPattern: '^[A-Z$][a-zA-Z_$]*$'
  FunctionNaming:
    active: true
    functionPattern: '^[a-z$][a-zA-Z$0-9]*$'
  FunctionMaxLength:
    active: false
    maximumFunctionNameLength: 30
  FunctionMinLength:
    active: false
    minimumFunctionNameLength: 3
  VariableNaming:
    active: true
    variablePattern: '^(_)?[a-z$][a-zA-Z$0-9]*$'
  ConstantNaming:
    active: true
    constantPattern: '^([A-Z_]*|serialVersionUID)$'
  VariableMaxLength:
    active: false
    maximumVariableNameLength: 30
  VariableMinLength:
    active: false
    minimumVariableNameLength: 3
  ForbiddenClassName:
    active: false
    forbiddenName: ''
  ProtectedMemberInFinalClass:
    active: false
  UnnecessaryParentheses:
    active: false
  DataClassContainsFunctions:
    active: false
  UseDataClass:
    active: false
  UnnecessaryAbstractClass:
    active: false

comments:
  active: true
  CommentOverPrivateMethod:
    active: true
  CommentOverPrivateProperty:
    active: true
  UndocumentedPublicClass:
    active: false
    searchInNestedClass: true
    searchInInnerClass: true
    searchInInnerObject: true
    searchInInnerInterface: true
  UndocumentedPublicFunction:
    active: false

Override defaults (via failFast option)

Set failFast: true in your detekt.yml configuration file. As a result, every rule will be enabled and warningThreshold and errorThreshold will be set to 0. Weights can then be ignored and left untouched.

To adjust, for example, the maxLineLength value, use this configuration file:

failFast:true
autoCorrect: true

style:
  MaxLineLength:
    maxLineLength: 100

All rules are turned on by default and the value of maxLineLength is adjusted to 100. If you don't want to have the CommentOverPrivateMethod turned on, you append:

comments:
  CommentOverPrivateMethod:
    active: false

Suppress code smell rules

detekt supports the Java (@SuppressWarnings) and Kotlin (@Suppress) style suppression. If both annotations are present, only Kotlin's annotation is used! To suppress a rule, the id of the rule must be written inside the values field of the annotation e.g. @Suppress("LongMethod", "LongParameterList", ...)

Configure build failure thresholds

detekt now can throw a BuildFailure(Exception) and let the build fail with following config parameters:

build:
  warningThreshold: 5 // Five weighted findings 
  failThreshold: 10 // Ten weighted smells to fail the build
  weights:
    complexity: 2 // Whole complexity rule should add two for each finding.
    LongParameterList: 1 // The specific rule should not add two.
    comments: 0 // Comments should not fail the build at all?!

Every rule and rule set can be attached with an integer value which is the weight of the finding. For example: If you have 5 findings of the category code-smell, then your failThreshold of 10 is reached as 5 x 2 = 10.

The formula for weights: RuleID > RuleSetID > 1. Only integer values are supported.

Extending detekt

Custom RuleSets

detekt uses a ServiceLoader to collect all instances of RuleSetProvider-interfaces. So it is possible to define rules/rule sets and enhance detekt with your own flavor. Attention: You need a resources/META-INF/services/io.gitlab.arturbosch.detekt.api.RuleSetProvider file which has as content the fully qualified name of your RuleSetProvider e.g. io.gitlab.arturbosch.detekt.sampleruleset.SampleProvider.

The easiest way to define an rule set is to clone the provided detekt-sample-ruleset project.

Own rules have to extend the abstract Rule class and override the visitXXX functions from the AST. A RuleSetProvider must be implemented which declares a RuleSet in the instance method. To allow your rule to be configurable, pass it a Config object from within your rule set provider. You can also specify a Severity type for your rule.

Example of a custom rule:

class TooManyFunctions : Rule("TooManyFunctions") {

    private var amount: Int = 0

    override fun visitFile(file: PsiFile) {
        super.visitFile(file)
        if (amount > 10) {
            addFindings(CodeSmell(id, Entity.from(file)))
        }
    }

    override fun visitNamedFunction(function: KtNamedFunction) {
        amount++
    }

}

Example of a much preciser rule in terms of more specific CodeSmell constructor and Rule attributes:

class TooManyFunctions2(config: Config) : Rule("TooManyFunctionsTwo", Severity.Maintainability, config) {

    private var amount: Int = 0

    override fun visitFile(file: PsiFile) {
        super.visitFile(file)
        if (amount > 10) {
            addFindings(CodeSmell(
                    id = id, entity = Entity.from(file),
                    description = "Too many functions can make the maintainability of a file more costly",
                    metrics = listOf(Metric(type = "SIZE", value = amount, threshold = 10)),
                    references = listOf())
            )
        }
    }

    override fun visitNamedFunction(function: KtNamedFunction) {
        amount++
    }

}

If you want your rule to be configurable, write down your properties inside the detekt.yml file and use the withConfig function:

MyRuleSet:
  MyRule:
    MyMetric: 5
    threshold: 10
  OtherRule:
    active: false

By specifying the rule set and rule ids, detekt will use the sub configuration of MyRule:

val threshold = withConfig { valueOrDefault("threshold") { threshold } }

Maven

If your using maven to build rule sets or use detekt as a dependency, you have to run the additional task install

Custom Processors

TODO

Custom Reports

detekt allows you to extend the console output and to create custom output formats.

For example if you do not like the default printing of findings, we can ... TODO

Testing your rules

To test your rules you need a KtFile object and use it's visit method. There are two predefined methods to help obtaining a KtFile:

  • compileContentForTest(content: String): KtFile
  • compileForTest(path: Path): KtFile

New with M3 there is a special detekt-test module, which specifies above two methods but also Rule extension functions that allow allow to skip compilation, ktFile and visit procedures.

  • Rule.lint(StringContent/Path/KtFile) returns just the findings for given content

Code Smell baseline and ignore list

Specify a report output with --output parameter and specify its format with --output-format. Now you can generate a report which holds all findings of current analysis.

With --baseline you generate a baseline.xml where code smells are white- or blacklisted.

<SmellBaseline>
  <Blacklist timestamp="1483388204705">
    <ID>CatchRuntimeException:Junk.kt$e: RuntimeException</ID>
  </Blacklist>
  <Whitelist timestamp="1496432564542">
    <ID>NestedBlockDepth:Indentation.kt$Indentation$override fun procedure(node: ASTNode)</ID>
    <ID>ComplexCondition:SpacingAroundOperator.kt$SpacingAroundOperator$tokenSet.contains(node.elementType) &amp;&amp; node is LeafPsiElement &amp;&amp; !node.isPartOf(KtPrefixExpression::class) &amp;&amp; // not unary !node.isPartOf(KtTypeParameterList::class) &amp;&amp; // fun &lt;T&gt;fn(): T {} !node.isPartOf(KtTypeArgumentList::class) &amp;&amp; // C&lt;T&gt; !node.isPartOf(KtValueArgument::class) &amp;&amp; // fn(*array) !node.isPartOf(KtImportDirective::class) &amp;&amp; // import * !node.isPartOf(KtSuperExpression::class)</ID>
    <ID>TooManyFunctions:LargeClass.kt$io.gitlab.arturbosch.detekt.rules.complexity.LargeClass.kt</ID>
    <ID>ComplexMethod:DetektExtension.kt$DetektExtension$fun convertToArguments(): MutableList&lt;String&gt;</ID>
  </Whitelist>
</SmellBaseline>

The intention of a whitelist is that only new code smells are printed on further analysis. The blacklist can be used to write down false positive detections. The ID node must be build of <RuleID>:<Signature>. Both values can be found inside the report file.

Contributors

Credits

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